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Chemotherapy in the general sense is a healing process in which a group of disease-causing microorganisms or prostate cancer treatment wiki can be killed by introducing chemicals into the body.


Its best-known field of application is therapy for the removal of malignant cancers within oncology, but in pharmacology the term often also refers to a definable group of antibiotics antibacterial chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for cancer patients can be for curative curative purposes, but it is only possible to improve the patient's quality of life or life expectancy palliative care.

Chemotherapy can be used alone or as an adjuvant treatment, ie in combination with other procedures eg radiotherapy, surgery. History The first advanced chemotherapeutic antibacterial agent was Salvarsan arzfenamine developed in by Paul Ehrlich to cure syphilis.

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This was followed by widely used synthetic compounds such as the penicillin named after Alexander Fleming or the sulfonamides experimented by Gerhard Domagk Chemotherapeutic agents were first used to treat cancers in the early 20th century.

Mustard gas, used as a combat gas during World War I, has been shown to inhibit normal hematopoiesis, as victims of the gas attacks have seen significant reductions in white blood cell counts.

Mustard nitrogen, similar to mustard gas, was studied during World War II. Because they also effectively inhibited rapidly dividing bone marrow cells, it has been suggested that they may also be effective against cancer cells. Inpatients with lymphoma were given intravenous mustard nitrogen-type compounds, with which significant improvement was achieved.

The first mustard nitrogen used as a medicine was mechlorethamine.

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The next major step forward after mustard nitrogens was the recognition of the antitumor effect of the first antimetabolite, methotrexate. Harvard University pathologist Sidney Farber studied the effects of folic acid in leukemia.

Exacerbation of the disease has been reported in the past when children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL were given folic acid.

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Farber gave folic acid-like aminopterin a compound similar to methotrexate to patients with ALL. The folic acid antagonist aminopterin inhibited the action of enzymes requiring folic acid, resulting in a significant improvement, although the effect achieved was only temporary. However, it has become clear that compounds capable of neutralizing folic acid may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

Later, methotrexate was also found to be effective in the treatment of solid tumors, the most striking of which was in the treatment of choriocarcinoma, which methotrexate alone was able to cure.

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Mechanism Malignant cancers are characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells, invasion of intact tissues, formation of distant metastases. Tumors are known in which genetic predisposition is predominant and the role of environmental damage is negligible eg hereditary retinoblastomabut it is true for most malignancies that a congenital genetic predisposition and a combination of environmental factors are required for their development.

Chemotherapy procedures are based on the principle that a chemical delivered to a patient's body kills rapidly dividing cells - a key prostate cancer treatment wiki of cancer cells. This effect is not limited to tumor cells, they damage all rapidly dividing cells, leading to many side effects.

Related tags : Kemoterápia.

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